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History

Social security implementations in Turkish history can be considered as Central Asia, Anatolian Seljuk, Ottoman and Republic Period.
In Central Asia Period, the domestic assistance came into prominence as an important social aid because of the strong family ties in Ancient Turks. After adopting a sedentary life, trust institutions, which were built on solid basis and established for well-being, solidarity and aid, emerged as another understanding of social assistance.
In Anatolian Seljuk Period, Ahi Communities were constituted by persons dealing with trade in cities. Then trust institutions were established in order to provide strong relations and solidarity among artisans for social welfare. Also the revenues obtained from glebes which were allocated from the lands being accepted as state property was assigned for the expenditures of solidarity and social welfare institutions.
Ottoman Empire can be regarded as a follow-up state of Anatolian Seljuk State in terms of economic and social organization. The first organization in the sense of social security in the Ottoman Empire emerged initially as Ahi Communities as in the case with Anatolian Seljuk Empire. These communities kept their efficiency until 18th Century. In 18th Century, the concept of social security in Ottoman Empire institutionalized and tax collection began for social welfare purposes for the first time in this century. Since industrialization movements and rise of proletariat began too late compared to Europe, Turks lately attained a contemporary social security system. The Labour Union established in 1921 is the first social security institution founded by the Law.
The Constitution dated 1921 which is the first Constitution of the new state did not regulate rights and liberties due to economic, social and political conditions. In 1924 Constitution, fundamental rights and freedoms as individuals’ rights and freedoms were regulated, however other economic, social and political rights and freedoms were not mentioned. In the early years of Republic, several laws foreseeing the establishment of some pension and provident funds were enacted. However, they were narrow-scoped by means of persons and risks, these funds were similar to social insurances and high in number. The Labor Law dated 1936 was the first law that establish the social insurance institutions and the fundamental principles about social insurances in Turkey. However the system foreseen in the Law could not be constituted until 1945 with the interruption of Second World War.
The initial laws on social security branches are as follows:

The most important development excluding these regulations in social security area is 1961 Constitution. By 1961 Constitution, “Social Security” concept was mentioned, for the first time, in constitutional terminology relevant to business life and social policies.
In Turkey, planned development started to be implemented in 1963. In development plans, social security was accepted as the security system developed in order to protect the individuals from possible risks. Development plans contained similar provisions in relation to social security; moreover, some arrangements, which are presented as new and crucial recently, had been involved in development plans for a long period of time.
During the historical process, the arrangements in various laws relating the insurance branches of those who work under the status of a worker, were unified with Social Insurances Law dated 1964. Eleven retirement funds were revoked by Retirement Fund Law dated 1949. It constituted an integrated social security structure in the modern sense based on the principle of collecting premiums from employees and employers. The Social Insurance Institution for Tradesmen and Craftsmen and Other Self-Employed People (Bağ-Kur) was founded by the Law dated 1971. Important arrangements were made in order to provide social security for people working in agricultural sector by the adoption of Social Security Law for Agricultural Workers and Social Security Law for Self Employed in Agriculture in 1983.
In this context, the social security rights of insurance holders were regulated in 5 different laws:

In the upcoming years, it was needed to conduct a social security reform for the purpose of unifying norms and creating a sustainable social security system.
Accordingly, the Social Security Institution was established in 2006 and three social security institutions (Social Insurances Institution, Retirement Fund and Bağ-Kur) were united under a single roof by Law No 5502 of 2006. By this reform, the Social Insurances and General Health Insurance Law No. 5510 was enacted in 2006 in order to create equal, accessible and qualified health services for whole population. The Law No 5510 came into force with its entire provisions on 01.10.2008. By means of the Law No. 5510, unity of norms and standards about many issues in the field of social insurance was achieved and implemented.
Currently, the Social Security Institution, with the contributions of its all staff, continues to provide citizens with more quality, technological, accessible and efficient services by displaying individual and institutional energy.

 
 

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